Copy, Fake, and Decorative Miniatures

Original and Decorative Miniatures
This collection focuses on original miniatures and, apart from some illustrative examples, tends to exclude those produced as decorative items. Nevertheless, some copies by famous artists such as Henry Pierce Bone, have become important items over time. Other decorative items are very collectible in their own right.

Original miniatures, where someone sat for the portrait and both the sitter and the artist are known, are preferred for this collection. They probably represent only one or two in every hundred miniatures offered for sale in marketplaces such as on-line auctions.

Most original miniatures, being say, one third of all miniatures on offer for sale at public or on-line auctions, are either unsigned or the sitter is unknown. However, the proportion identified will be higher at the dedicated portrait miniature auctions held by a few major auction houses and by specialist dealers in miniatures .

In the experience of this collector, the other two-thirds of miniatures seen for sale at on-line auctions or by bric-a-brac type antique dealers, are decorative copies. Copies of miniatures fall into several main categories.

Copies by the Original Artist
These are where the original artist made several identical copies of a miniature, for example for different members of a family.

It is unusual to find these examples, but they do exist and shown here are two portraits by Charles Foot Tayler, both signed "C F Tayler 1820". One of these was acquired from California, USA and the other from Kent, UK. Thus it was nice to reunite them. These duplicates may have been painted at the same time or perhaps one several years later.

Even today there are artists painting modern miniature portraits for clients, although they are often much more expensive than the majority of antique miniatures.

Official Copies by Important Artists
Often copies of known portraits were requested from listed artists. Sometimes these were noted as copies, but generally without any intention to deceive.

Even in this category of copies, there are some very expensive miniatures. In the 18C and 19C some very famous artists, such as Henry Bone and his son Henry Pierce Bone, painted very fine miniature copies on enamel of large portraits and these now sell for very high prices.

The example shown here is a miniature in enamel of the poet Lord Byron by Henry Pierce Bone. It is a miniature copy of a famous large oil of Byron.

Also from the time of the earliest miniatures, it was often practice for royalty to have multiple copies of miniatures painted for presentation to foreign ambassadors.

Artists such as Anton Freidrich Konig and Juda Pinhas made many miniature copies of large oil portraits of Frederick the Great by other artists for this purpose.

Elsewhere in this collection there is just such a miniature by Pinhas, of Frederick the Great. See European Miniature Portraits - 2: Pinhas, Jude Low - portrait of ...

Miniature copies like these can be found. The one shown here is expertly painted and has a faint signature of "E Miles", who was active in St Petersburg, Russia from 1797-1806 where he was Court Painter to the Tsar.

The sitter is Grand Princess Alexandra Pavlovna (1783-1801), who was daughter of Tzar Paul I (1754-1801) wearing the red sash of the Grand Cross of the Order of St. Catherine, which was conferred to every Russian Grand Duchess upon her christening (or upon her marriage into the Romanov family).

The original painted in 1797 and a shown here, is in the State Russian Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow and is attributed to Miles. It looks identical to the version in this collection, apart from the style of the frame.

The frame of the one in this collection is tortoiseshell expensively inlaid with gold, mother-of-pearl, and abalone. Thus it is possible that it is an official copy made to give to a member of the Court, as the combined miniature and frame would have been very expensive.

The doubt about this being by Miles, is that he did not normally sign his work and the frame style here seems to be somewhat later than the date of the original. However, it is still by a very good artist and is very similar to Miles' work. So much time and skill was required to make a copy of this standard, that it was usually not worth the effort of a faker to do so.

Fakes and Decorative Copies
By far the most common, are the decorative copies often mass produced in the late 19C and early 20C.

Studios were set up especially in France and Germany and hundreds, if not thousands, of copies of a single famous miniature, or miniatures based on 18C and 19C engravings, would emerge from a variety of these studios which were more like factories. The quality of these copies varies enormously.

The best examples such as the one here of Madame Pompadour were very well painted and deserve to be collected in their own right.

They were generally on ivory, but cheaper versions were simply printed on celluloid, sometimes with limited over-painting of the highlights, often in opaque white. Close examination of these readily shows their poor quality.

They often had a fake signature of a famous artist added. These are usually easy to spot due to the lack of quality which does not match that of the named artist. Separately, there are copies of better known miniatures, which appear to have been painted by students learning to paint.

Decorative miniatures may have the purported signature of the original artist, be unsigned, or have a deliberately wrongly spelled name of a famous artist of an earlier period, such as Cobway for Cosway. Names like Stieler, Nattier, Cosway, Smart, and Isabey or variations upon their names are commonly found.

Often they are copied from old engravings and so the colours may be different to the originals and the images can be reversed.

Many have frames that when looked at, can be seen to have been made of old piano keys pieced together. Some have very ornate pierced frames.

Others have pages of old books covering the reverse to give a false impression of great age.

Some decorative miniatures were not traditional portraits and shown here are two charming decorative miniatures of cupids.

One shows the cupids forging an arrow in a fire and the second shows that the arrow has successfully hit its target, a heart. This symbolises a common purpose of a miniature portrait, as a romantic gift to a lover.

For more examples of Fakes and Decorative miniatures, including a large selection of the various types of frames used for early 20C decorative miniatures, see View

Modern Decorative Miniatures

Decorative miniatures are still being painted and some of them are of a very high standard. Shown here are four Russian miniatures painted since 2000. They are of Tsar Nicholas II and his wife Alexandra, together with two of his children, Grand Duchess Tatania amd Grand Duchess Anastasia.

This type of miniature is called Fedoskino or Palekh miniatures, after the Russian villages where many are still painted using lacquer on a papier-mache base. For more about them see Russian lacquer miniature - Fedoskino These can be purchased relatively inexpensively and would make a great basis for a collection for anyone interested in collecting miniature art, but with a tight limit on the amount of money they can spend.

Miniatures by Fedoskino artists can provide a means of forming an attractive and inexpensive collection, and in doing so provide an insight into the times and events associated with the originals.

Miniatures and the Photograph

During the 19C the popularity of the miniature portrait was eroded by the invention of photography and its rapid spread after 1840, firstly as daguerreoptypes and later in other formats as they were introduced. The advantage of a photograph was that it was much quicker and cheaper than a painted miniature portrait.

This led to various ways in which the two skills over-lapped. At first glance this portrait of a lady looks like a painted miniature, but by reference to the extreme top and bottom left, one can see it is actually a photograph, which has been hand coloured with water-colour. Some early daguerreotypes were also hand tinted.

As an indication of the strength of the competition from photography, one daguerreotypist and photographer, Henry Pollock of Baltimore, stated that he made 5500 likenesses per year. By comparison few miniature painters would exceed 100 miniatures per year.

One obvious disadvantage of the photograph was that colour was not available. The other major disadvantage did not become obvious immediately. That was that photographs were even more susceptible to fading than were miniatures. Thus some painters with wealthy clients were able to persevere. However even the best of these artists, such as John Henry Brown, tended to adapt their style of painting to make each of their miniatures look like a photograph.

There was no clear division in the date of choice between of painting and photography and even the type of framing used was blurred in its use. For example, shown here in American cases more often used for painted miniature portraits, are front and rear views of locket cases containing hair and/or photographs.

The top three have only hair, with the centre one engraved on the reverse "Eliza Ann Alexander". It is possible that this hair locket commemorates the birth of the Eliza Ann Alexander, who was born 23 August 1835. However, it may also refer to the death of a lady of this name. The rest have photographs of varying types.

In the late 19C and early 20C there was a revival in painted miniature portraits. This was due in part to the realisation that, as can be seen from these examples, the durability of photographs was not as good as that of paintings.

This revival was also a by-product of the arts and crafts movement of the late 19C early 20C, itself the result of a desire by artistic sections of the community, to reject manufactured products and return to the skill of the craftsman. Although a few purists discount the importance of these portraits, some of the artists were very skilled.

Painted Miniatures with a Photographic Base
One other area that causes some confusion, is the status of miniature portraits which may be painted over a photographic base as in some instances, miniature painters used a light photographic base for the miniature.

Other painters copied photographs. In the late 19C and early 20C many photographs were sent from the United States to France, Germany, and possibly Italy, to be copied as painted miniatures on ivory or porcelain. The Eckardt family in Dresden was particularly involved with this and there are several examples by them in this collection, including this one of a child.

Evidence of this practice is found in the Spring/Summer 2006 edition of the NYHS Journal which comments on the Peter Marie Collection of Miniatures and in particular a contemporary view expressed in 1903 that "some of the miniatures did not even qualify as art, as they were not originals but paintings copied in Europe from photographs taken in the United States."

Such a narrow view is no longer valid, as these days it would preclude photographs and limited edition prints from being regarded as art forms. Nevertheless, some collectors spurn these items, but in this collection the use of aids to drawing is not a barrier to inclusion. This is because from the earliest times artists have used drawing aids, whether squaring, tracing paper, erasers, or even projected images in the case of silhouettes.

Thus the criterion for inclusion here is primarily the quality of the miniature painting itself. In fact portraits with a photographic base are themselves collected as a part of the history of photography, see an excellent article by Merwyn Ruggles at at JAIC 1985, Volume 24, Number 2, Article 4 (pp. 92 to 103) People interested in seeing an excellent collection of Victorian and Edwardian portrait photographs should visit Victorian and Edwardian Photographs - Roger Vaughan Personal Photo ...

Other Forms of Competition
In the 19C there were various attempts to seek other substitutes for preserving photographs. One of the most unusual was called Photo-Miniature. It involved using chemicals to remove the paper backing from a photograph and floating the resultant very thin photographic film onto the rear of a similar shaped convex oval glass.

The image was dried and then reverse painted, before using a further convex oval glass of identical size and shape to cover the rear of the painting. The final form then being a glass sandwich with the reverse painted photographic film in the middle.

Only two examples of this have ever been noted by this collector, one of them being a demonstration example included in a comprehensive box of chemicals and paints above which forms part of this collection. Two stages of the example can be seen fixed to the inside lid in the picture here. The paint box was specifically marketed for the purpose by Bourgeois Aine of Paris.

Another form of miniature on a photographic base was used, for example by a French photographer called Mathieu Deroche, in the late 19C and early 20C.

This involved developing the photographic image on an enamel on copper blank, usually oval shaped. Then hand colouring the image and firing it in a kiln after the application of a top protective glaze, as with the portrait of a child shown here.

For more about the process see Beschrijving van diverse technieken - VNE - Vereniging van ...

The permanence of the process can be seen with these two photographic portraits of a currently unidentified British Army Officer taken before 1880 (as after that date rank badges were worn on the shoulder, instead of the collar).

One is a hand-coloured photograph taken by the famous firm of London photographers Elliott & Fry sometime after 1864, the year they were founded.

The other is the same photograph on an enamel plaque, glazed, and then fired by Deroche. This example has no hand colouring and the condition is perfect (the white at the bottom is scanner glare).

The technique used by Deroche provided a permanent coloured image, something not possible with 19C photographs. Works by Deroche are very collectible and come on the market relatively often. There are several in this collection. The best ones can command quite high prices and a very nice one was seen to change hands for well over USD 1000.

A similar technique is still in use in some countries for the photographic portraits that may be seen on graves.

Focus of the Collection

Traditional Miniature Collections
Although decorative miniatures are generally outside the scope of the collection, one has been shown here to illustrate the use of a miniature portrait, as a love token. The cherub is holding an arrow and a miniature portrait in a rectangular frame.

Traditionally, the best miniature collections are formed by seeking examples of 16C and 17C miniatures by the top British and European artists and then accepting into such collections, representative examples of the very best 18c and 19C artists from Britain and Europe.

By its nature, that method of collecting is very expensive as, on the one hand, 16C and 17C miniatures are scarce, many already being in museums and on the other hand, their scarcity makes them very expensive. Thus they tend to be the preserve of very wealthy collectors.

Nevertheless, if you are seeking more information on the very early history of miniatures see The Origin of the Portrait Miniature and Portrait miniature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, also "Surrounded with Brilliants": Miniature portraits in Eighteenth ...

Focus of this Collection
This collection has been formed from the opposite direction, noting that the early 20C artists are now as far removed from us, as some more famous artists: Cosway, Plimer, and Engleheart, were to Dr Williamson when he wrote their biographies 100 years ago.

The focus is in two less popular areas; American miniatures and 20C miniatures. Accordingly, American and 20C miniatures are the prime interest, with examples of earlier British and European miniatures being acquired only if they represent advantageous buying.

Thus the exhibition does not represent the rarest of early portrait miniatures. These can range upward in value from $50,000 to $200,000, or even more, the record being over $1,000,000. As such they are unlikely to be found by the average collector.

Instead this exhibition displays the type of miniatures the average collector is much more likely to come across and aims to spread knowledge of lesser known artists. As time passes, there is an increasing emphasis on named sitters. This enables a sitter to be researched and information about them made available for visitors interested in genealogical research.

Also included are examples from countries of origin not usually encountered, such as Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Australia, and Canada. There is a wide range of portrait miniatures from America, Britain, and Europe. They were painted during the period from around 1700 up to the time of World War II.

Rarity, Uniqueness, and History
Miniature portraits are each unique artworks which are rarely displayed outside major art museums. Despite the "affordable" focus of this collection, there are miniatures by artists whose work is displayed in the major art museums and collections around the world, including the Smithsonian, the Louvre, the Hermitage, the Metropolitan, the Victoria and Albert, the British and Dutch Royal Collections, and various National Portrait Galleries such as the United States, England, and Scotland. Such major art museum representation would be impossible for a private collector to achieve when collecting in any other branch of original art and makes miniature collecting special.

The books listed in the comprehensive Bibliography include many books detailing the history of miniatures. Many miniatures held hair of a loved one and there is a good discussion on sentimental jewelry by Davida Tenenbaum Deutsch in The Magazine Antiques for April 1999, see Jewelry for mourning, love, and fancy, 1770-1830 Much of Deutsch's own portrait miniature collection is illustrated in the book "Love and Loss" by Robin Jaffe Frank.

Recent Additions and Comment

Since late 2005 there has been an attempt to gradually improve the average quality and interest of items in the collection. This will be an ongoing process, but is difficult for a casual visitor to discern.

Thus separate galleries have been created which show additions to the collection. Generally, the miniatures added are replacement items for those which have been disposed of.

As such, it is a convenient way of showing additions for repeat visitors to the collection.

Miniatures added since December 2005 can thus be seen at;

2008 Additions and Comment
2007 Additions and Comment
2006 Additions and Comment

These galleries also include commentary on market place news associated with miniature portraits, often concerning miniatures sold at public auction to other collectors.

Guest Gallery

This gallery has been opened to display images of quality portrait miniatures submitted by private owners of limited numbers of miniatures who wish to share their images and help enhance the exhibition as a reference collection of privately owned miniatures.

It therefore represents an opportunity for private owners to display miniatures that would otherwise never be seen by the public and also to invite answers to any research questions about the miniatures.

Several owners have now submitted portraits. Most recently, a Dutch collector has submitted some fine European items. A New Zealand collector is showing is a family group from London, England which is still being researched. From a collector in Chile is a very interesting group associated with the artist Antonio Meucci. An American owner has sent a portrait believed to be by Raphaelle Peale.

Additionally, owners of more substantial numbers of miniatures can have a free exhibition in a dedicated Gallery, such as Une Collection Francaise which shows a selection from a French collector's collection of 18C and early 19C French miniatures.

Other items for display are welcome and the owner's name and contact address will not be displayed unless it is requested. There is no charge associated with submission of a miniature portrait. An email containing images and any known details about the portrait is all that is necessary. Click on About Me for my email address to send them to.

The Guest Gallery is available to view at Guest Gallery

History of the Collection

Fragility of Human History
There are portraits of 800 individuals in the collection and on average, each of the portraits was painted around 150-180 years ago. Thus, in a cumulative sense, the sum of the individual ages of the portraits represents 120,000-150,000 years of human history! Although, it may appear meaningless in itself, this figure does give a sense of the how much history is involved, as most sitters are ancestors of people alive today. Note also that 140,000 years is what many anthropologists regard as the length of time since our descent from Mitochondrial Eve, the common ancestor of modern man, see Mitochondrial Eve - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In fact, in January 2007, scientists have determined the first migration of humans out of sub-Saharan Africa occurred less than 50,000 years ago. Thus taken another way, if it were realistic to assume a 60 year life span for each individual represented in this collection, the sum of their lives would represent the time since their ancestors first left Africa. Yet a further example would be if each of the 800 individual portraits in the collection were assumed to be in a single line of descent, with a generation gap of 15 years between each parent and child. This would cover the period from today, back 12,000 years to the first discovery of agriculture! Human history is brief.

Update January 2008 - An interesting article in the news is that scientists have determined that all blue-eyed people can trace their ancestry to one person who probably lived in the Black Sea region about 10,000 years ago. The scientists evaluated a sample of people with blue eyes and found that 99.5% have the same genetic mutation.

This indicates that all sitters in these miniature portraits who have blue eyes, have a common ancestor from no more distant than 10,000 years ago.

History of the Collection
The collection has developed over a period of time, very much on a trial and error basis, and as the subject has gradually been understood a little better. The interest followed from collecting postage stamps, which itself created an awareness of differing portraits on postage stamps and the history associated with the people and events depicted.

The collection commenced largely by accident. My eldest daughter had been required to undertake a genealogy project at school. This created a desire to record and preserve our own family history. Then, when attending an antique auction, a group of family miniatures by William Douglas was seen being split up as individual lots. This prompted us to try and save the family by purchasing as many as we could afford. Hence the name of the collection "Artists and Ancestors".

Focus on Quality and Interest
Early purchases were fairly indiscriminate and ill-informed, with many items acquired just because they were small pictures, and many mistakes were made. Later there was a focus on signed or attributed works. More recently, there has been more focus on acquiring miniatures of named sitters.

The size of the collection has now stabilised at around 800, with disposals tending to match acquisitions. The aim is now to improve the quality and have fewer items titled "Unknown artist - portrait of unknown man".

If visitors to the site seek information about miniature portraits they own, they can send me an email at the address mentioned in my profile and I am happy to comment on them without charge, although a polite expression of thanks would always be appreciated, even if it is regretfully necessary to advise that a treasured miniature is not a great rarity.


It is hard to select particular highlights, but the collection does include these portraits.

Aaron Burr, Vice-President of the United States, most often now remembered for fighting a duel with Alexander Hamilton. Early 19C painting by unknown artist, after the Vanderlyn portrait, (included in American 1 Gallery).

Theodosia Burr Alston, daughter of Aaron Burr, attributed to John Wesley Jarvis. She was tragically lost at sea on a coastal voyage to New York, (included in American 1 Gallery).

Auguste Rodin leaning on his most famous sculpture, by F L Nicolet, (included in European 1 Gallery).

Napoleon, attributed to Jean Baptiste Duchesne. This portrait is engraved with the inscription "Given by the Emperor Napoleon to Marshal Ney who gave it to Lady Elizabeth Monck". Research has identified Lady Monck as a relative of the Earl of Uxbridge, who was one of the Duke of Wellington's commanders at the Battle of Waterloo. (included in European 1 Gallery.)

Portrait of a man by Charles Bourgeois. There are several similar portraits by him in the Louvre Museum, (included in European 1 Gallery).

Lord Byron, the English poet, an enamel portrait by Henry Pierce Bone, (included in British 1 Gallery).

William Pitt the Younger, Prime Minister of Great Britain, attributed to John Donaldson. This portrait is engraved on the rear with the inscription "Rt Hon'ble William Pitt". It is believed to have been painted shortly after he entered Parliament, (included in British 1 Gallery.)

American Galleries

American miniature portraits and silhouettes, from both North and South America are available to view by following the links below. They include a small number painted elsewhere that do have American associations.

American miniatures are more rare than may be commonly assumed. In his 1832 Gazetteer, Bishop Davenport recorded many interesting facts about the United States in the early years of the 19C. For example in 1820 the population of Boston was about 50,000, NYC was under 150,000, and Philadelphia was 65,000. The total population of USA went from 3.9 million in 1790 to 12.9 million in 1830. Most of these people lived in the countryside and others were slaves or from the working classes.

Thus there were few people who could afford to have miniatures painted in America in comparison to those in Europe, especially when it is considered America was at war with England during the American Revolution, and again after 1800. It is also likely some American miniatures were lost during the Civil War period.

There is a table in Blattel's Dictionary of Miniature Painters showing the number of miniature painters by country. Many of these are known by name only and may have painted only one or two miniatures each. The total number of miniaturists listed for France, Germany, and Great Britain is in the range of 7000 to 7500 for each country, approximately 22,000 in total, plus about 7000 for Austria and Italy combined, together with 6,000 for the rest of Europe, which totals close to 35,000 for Europe. After eliminating the pre 1750 artists and assuming 100 surviving miniatures per European painter, there may be as many as 2,000,000 European miniatures still in existence.

However, for USA the total number of miniature painters is only about 1800 and, of this, the number of early 19C American artists who painted more than 100 miniatures is probably under 500, with a similar number from the early 20C painting less than 100 miniatures. However, assuming 1800 American miniature painters at 100 surviving miniatures for each painter, suggests there are less than 200,000 American miniatures in existence. That is only 10% of the estimated total for European miniatures.

In theory this makes the prospect of successfully attributing unsigned American miniatures to specific artists, much more likely than for European artists. However, unfortunately, the literature on American artists is not extensive and there is no comprehensive dictionary of American artists which includes examples of the work of each artist.

American Style and Attributions
Many American miniatures are unsigned, some are also close in style to British or European painters, which is not surprising as many painters emigrated to America. Thus it can be difficult to attribute miniatures to specific artists, or even to the country of origin. However, by studying styles and in particular frames, it is possible to be fairly certain of the country of origin. However, it is recognized there may be errors in the collection and there may be a few British ones included as American in error.

American miniatures being such a specialised, but sadly unfashionable, field of collecting means that there are few real experts on the subject. This collector expects that experts on American miniatures may justifiably question some of the attributions made. However, a major reason for posting these images, is to allow knowledgeable collectors or experts to comment on attributions and hence any correcting comments will be very welcome. If desired, expert comment can be left anonymously.

In return, it is hoped that the images and comments on the website will help add to the general pool of knowledge on the subject.

American Galleries
The American miniature portraits and silhouettes are displayed in four galleries and a total of around 360 individual portraits can be viewed.

American 1 Gallery - includes 18C and 19C artists, together with more interesting sitters from that period by unknown artists. The section includes the examples shown by James Peale, Nathaniel Rogers, Anna Claypoole Peale, and John Wood Dodge. Interesting sitters included in the section are Aaron Burr, Theodosia Burr Alston, and Commodore Matthew Perry. These miniatures are in approximate alphabetical order of artist or sitter - to view about 110 of them, go to American 1

American 2 Gallery - includes the remainder of 19C artists, mostly unsigned and the sitters unidentified. With some exceptions, they are listed in approximate date order. To view about 120 of them, go to American 2

American 3 Gallery - As the other three American Galleries have grown to be quite large, an overflow Gallery has been created in early 2008 which will hold all new additions from the 18C, 19C, and 20C, see American 3

American 20C Gallery - includes the late 19C artists and 20C artists and most of these miniatures are signed. These American 20C portraits are available to view in approximate alphabetical order of artist. The section includes miniatures by William Jacob Baer and Eulabee Dix. To view about 110 of them, go to American 20C

American Silhouettes. In principle, these are outside the scope of the collection, with one significant exception. This is the group of 20 silhouettes of the Garrigues family shown above which now form part of the collection. These were cut at the Charles Willson Peale Museum and around half of them have the Peale Museum impression. A previous owner of this frame loaned it to the Garrigues family for inclusion in their family history website, thus the 20 identified silhouettes can best viewed individually at Charles Willson Peale Silhouettes of Garrigues & Davis Families circa 1820-1825

Silhouettes, Costumes, and Other Links
People interested in detailed information about American silhouettes should visit an excellent site at Antique Silhouettes - 19th Century American Silhouettes There is also a helpful article by Anne Verplanck about distinguishing real and fake Peale silhouettes at Distinguishing Real from Fake Peale's Museum Silhouette by user

For information about early American costume and the miniature art of Betsy Way, an interesting essay can be found at Common-place: Object Lessons: Miniature Worlds For several examples of American miniatures and especially information about portraits of Abraham Lincoln see The Youngest Face of Abraham Lincoln? - Miniature Artists

The Original 19C Cost of a Miniature
Some people wonder how much miniatures cost when they were originally painted. The following is a rare and interesting front page advertisement taken from Poulson's American Daily Advertiser, Philadelphia, PA for November 5, 1821. Also shown further below is an advertisement of 1801.

"RAPHAELLE PEALE - having returned to Philadelphia after an absence of 18 months, will paint portraits for a short time at the following prices - Portraits in oils, $20, in miniature on ivory, $15, profiles colored on Ivory Paper, 3, Likeness after death, $50 - fifteen or twenty minutes with the deceased is all the time necessary to obtain means of having a faithful likeness."

This is interesting in several respects; it indicates the charges made by Raphaelle Peale, it indicates that he was painting miniatures much later than reference literature generally states, and it also explains a little about the practice of painting portraits of deceased persons after their death.

Obviously, monetary values have changed a lot since 1821. To give some perspective to Raphaelle Peale's charge for painting a miniature, it is interesting to refer to page 158 of Bishop Davenport's "Gazetteer" published in 1832. This lists the pay per day for Senators and Representatives from each state of the then United States. Their pay ranged from $1.50 to $4.00 per day, with an apparent average of around $3.00 per day.

Allowing for a little inflation between 1821 and 1832, it seems that a miniature on ivory costing $20 was therefore equivalent to about a week's remuneration for a Senator or Representative.

Comparison with Today's Values
According to Wikipedia, the 2006 base remuneration level for Senators and Representatives is $165,000 pa, which is a little over $3000 per week. Thus it can be seen that a miniature on ivory was an expensive item in 1821 and equivalent to around $3000 now, even before the cost of the frame.

The frame could more than double the cost. In 1801 Raphaelle Peale had charged $10 for a miniature unframed and $25 in an ornate frame with hair on the reverse. Reproduction frames can now cost around $500, but do not have the hair decoration on the reverse. Relatively, they are cheaper, as they are now partially machine made. Later American frames of 1830-1850 were made with very small rear windows on the reverse, presumably to keep the cost of hair-work to a minimum.

Thus inclusive of a reasonably ornate frame, although not one of those with hair decoration on the reverse, one can say that the cost of a miniature on ivory, painted in 1820 by Raphaelle Peale, was equivalent to around $5,000 in today's money.

Post Mortem Miniatures and Photographs
However, given his charge of $50, a likeness painted of a deceased person was even more expensive and equivalent to around $10,000 of today's money.

Although, painting a deceased person cannot have been pleasant, it seems that he was to some extent taking advantage of the bereaved relatives, who would have had to make up their minds very quickly. As death in childbirth was common in those days, many of the deceased he was asked to paint would have unfortunately died in childbirth.

Later, after 1840, the urgency was slightly less as it was possible to take post mortem photographs, or base a miniature on an earlier daguerreotype if one was available.

In this collection is a miniature by John Henry Brown that the artist painted after the sitter's death and copied it from a daguerreotype, see Brown, John Henry - portrait of Mrs Antoinette Wil...

Current day values of miniatures are very much driven by the identity of the artist and of the sitter. However, for Raphaelle Peale, taking a current value range of say, $5000 to $10000 per miniature, suggests the value of his miniatures has kept pace with inflation.

British Galleries

The British miniature portraits are split into three galleries.

British 1 Gallery - This includes most better known artists and interesting sitters, such as these portraits by Sophia Smith, Jeremiah Meyer, and Peter Stroehling. Around 100 of these British miniatures are available to view at British 1

British 2 Gallery - This includes the balance of British 18C and 19C miniatures and about 100 miniatures can be viewed at British 2

British 20C Gallery - This covers the late 19C and early 20C miniatures, with the cut-off being largely on stylistic grounds.

It includes the this portrait of Edward VII by Ernest Rinzi. Approaching 100 portraits can be seen at British 20C

European Galleries

The European miniatures are currently displayed in two galleries, although the 20C ones may be separated out at some stage, as has been done with the 20C miniatures in the American and British Galleries.

European 1 Gallery - This includes many signed miniatures and identified sitters from about 1800 through to 1950. Over 100 miniatures in this group can be viewed at European 1

Those available to view include two of the portraits appearing here, one of the very famous French sculptor of the Napoleonic period, Joseph Chinard which is painted on enamel by Francois Soiron and one of Baroness Leopold Neuwall, the wife of a wealthy Austrian banker, painted by Domenico Bossi in 1816.

European 2 Gallery - This includes mainly signed miniatures from before 1800 and some 18C and 19C miniatures that are unsigned and/or where the sitter is unknown.

There are about 100 on view at European 2 They include two portraits shown here, one of a French Revolutionary soldier painted by Pierre Rouvier and one of three sisters painted by Marie Durieux.

Art Collecting Links

A number of knowledgeable visitors to the website have made helpful comments and also corrected some of my glaring errors. I am sure there are still many errors left, especially in the American section, all of which are mine! Any and all further corrections will be very welcome.

However, I would like to express particular thanks for their help and encouragement at various times, to Christine Archibald, Stefanie Deutsch, Bernardo and Anna Maria Falconi, Bodo Hofstetter, Thierry Jaegy, Natalie Lemoine-Bouchard, Linda Mitchell, Bernd Pappe, Jean-Jacques Petit, Vanessa Remington, Emma Rutherford, Camilla Seymour, Ed Sheppard, and Boris Wilnitsky.

Several employees of art museums have responded promptly and helpfully to my questions, and so I am also very grateful for their assistance.

Collecting Miniatures
Visitors with a general interest in the subject of contemporary miniature art, should visit the very comprehensive contemporary resource site at and its sister site These sites concentrate on contemporary miniatures, but include many links to sites with information about antique miniatures.

People specifically interested in collecting antique portrait miniatures and related items should investigate the links below which will take them to some locations where portrait miniatures can be purchased. The auction houses usually have their latest illustrated catalogue available online and most of the specialist dealers have their current inventory available to view online. Some of them include prices.

International Auction Houses;
1 Bonhams see Portrait Miniatures at Bonhams
2 Christie's see Christie's - Portrait Miniatures
3 Sotheby's see British Watercolors & Portrait Miniatures

Specialist Dealers
- America
1 Elle Shushan see Elle Shushan - Antique Portrait Miniatures - American, English ...
2 Christine Archibald see Christine Archibald Portrait Miniatures
3 Laura Nagan Brown see Portrait Miniatures
4 Joseph Topping see Joseph Topping at Ruby Lane : Portrait Miniatures, Silhouettes ...
5 Joan Brownstein see Joan R Brownstein

6 Kyle Karnes see
7 Mark Reinfurt see Equinox Antiques

- Britain
1 Piccolo Arts see Antique Portrait Miniatures from Piccolo Art Ltd.

2 Cynthia Walmsley see
3 Barry Hayes see Portrait Miniatures from Barry Hayes
4 Claudia Hill see Portrait Miniatures of Claudia Hill
5 Lawrence Gould see Lawrence Gould Antiques
6 Cynthia McKinley see Wigs on the Green Fine Art
7 David Lavender see DS Lavender :: Home Page

8 Emma Rutherford see Portrait Miniatures | Philip Mould & Company

- Europe and Israel
1 Nathalie Lemoine-Bouchard see Lemoine-Bouchard Fine Arts
2 Thierry Jaegy see Galerie Jaegy Theoleyre
3 Robert Keil see Robert Keil - Kunsthandel
4 Boris Wilnitsky see Boris Wilnitsky Fine Art - Homepage
5 Erica in Tel Aviv see antique-masterpieces

Specialist miniature restoration services are available from
America - Wiebolds see Antique & Art Restoration By Wiebold
Europe - Bernd Pappe of Switzerland
Europe - Carmen Krisai-Chizzola of Austria
However, many art museums and public galleries may also undertake the work. 

There are a number of Online Collections that can be viewed via the Internet. Just a couple are;
1 Smithsonian SAAM :: Have a Question? Find an Answer
2 Eye and other miniatures Georgian, Victorian, other

Other Interesting Links
This includes some sites where it is possible to commission modern miniature portraits.
In America see Miniature Art Information by Wes & Rachelle Siegrist
World Wide Art Resources -
Modern jewellery -

Stolen Miniatures
Inevitably some miniatures do get stolen. As a service to visitors images of stolen miniatures can be submitted for display in the Guest Gallery There is currently an image of one stolen item there.
There are also other sites on the Internet that show pictures of stolen miniatures, for example see Find Stolen Art - View Stolen Items
A word of advice, as the latter site includes images that are quite unclear. To help safeguard any miniatures you may possess, it is sensible to take good quality scans or photographs, such has been done with items displayed in this collection. However, even those images should be held somewhere safe, such as on a website like this, in case your computer is destroyed or stolen at the same time as the miniatures.


There are many useful books and as with any specialist collection, good reference books can pay for themselves many times over. The prime reference used here for ready reference is Blattel and thus a great deal of thanks needs to be awarded to Harry Blattel and also the other authors mentioned below who have put a great deal of time and effort into the subject.

For such a specialist subject, it is surprising how many books have been published. There are over 150 books in the reference section of the collection. They include the two early books illustrated here.

1 "L'Ecole de la Mignature etc." 180 pp. - this is the New Edition which was published in 1782. The first edition appears to have been published in 1778. It is interesting that the title refers to "mignature", rather than "miniature".

2 "Manuel de Miniature etc." 360 pp. - this is a rare first edition which was published in 1828.

The bibliography below is split geographically by where each book was published, but there is some cross-over of content. For example the American section concentrates on miniatures with an American focus, but also lists collections of British and European miniatures that are housed in America. Almost all of these books form part of the collection. In addition there is a quantity of auction house catalogues.

American Miniature Portraits

A Deaf Artist in Early America: The Worlds of John Brewster Jr., by Harlan Lane, 2004
After the Revolution: Profiles of Early American Culture by Joseph J. Ellis
A Gallery Collects Peales, by Robert Devlin Schwarz 1987
A History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States, by William Dunlap, 1934
Alvan Clark & Sons – Artists in Optics, by Deborah Jean Warner and Robert B Ariail 1996
American Miniature Portraits on Ivory from the Collection of Linda and Raymond White, Huntsville Museum of Art 1996
American Painting, History and Interpretation, by Virgil Barker, 1950
American Pioneer Art & Artists, by Carl W. Drepperd 1942
American Portrait Miniatures in the Manney Collection by Dale T. Johnson 1990
American Portrait Miniatures: The Worcester Art Museum Collection by Susan E. Strickler 1989
American Miniatures: Metropolitan Museum of Art 1730-1850 by Harry B. Wehle 1927
American Wax Portraits, by Ethel Stanwood Bolton 1929
Anson Dickinson, The Celebrated Miniature Painter, 1779-1852, by Mona Leithiser Dearborn 1983
An Exhibition of Virginia Miniatures, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts 1941
A Perfect Likeness: European and American Portrait Miniatures from the Cincinnati Art Museum, by Julie Aronson and Marjorie E. Wieseman 2006
Artists In The Life of Charleston: Through Colony and State, from Restoration to Reconstruction, by Anna Wells Rutledge
Catalogue of American Portraits in the New York Historical Society, 1941
Catalogue of an Exhibition of Miniatures Painted in America 1729-1850, Metropolitan Museum of Art 1927
Catalogue of the Annual Water Color and Miniature Exhibitions, PAFA various years
Charles Fraser, by Alice R. Huger Smith and D. E. Huger Smith 1924
Charles Fraser of Charleston, ed by Martha Severens 1983
Early American Portrait Painters in Miniature, by Theodore Bolton, 1921
Elkanah Tisdale in The Connecticut Historical Bulletin Spring 1984
English and Continental Portrait Miniatures – the Latter-Schlesinger Collection by Pamela Pierrepont Bardo 1978
Ethel Frances Mundy (1876-1964), by Anna Wetherill Olmsted undated
European Miniatures in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, by Graham Reynolds 1997
Ezra Ames of Albany: Portrait Painter, Craftsman, Royal Arch Mason, Banker, 1768-1836, by Theodore Bolton and Irwin Cortelyou, New York, 1955
Four Centuries of Miniature Painting, Baltimore Museum of Art 1958
From Turnbridge, Vermont to London, England: The Journal of James Guild, Peddler, Tinker, Schoolmaster, Portrait Painter from 1818-1824, by James Guild
George Freeman, Miniaturist, by Wilma Keyes, Storrs CT, 1980
Heirlooms in Miniatures by Anne Hollingsworth Wharton 1898
Henry Benbridge (1743-1812) American Portrait Painter, by Robert G. Stewart 1971
Henry Benbridge (1743-1812): Charleston Portrait Painter, by Angela D. Mack
Jacob Frymire – American Limner, by Linda Crocker Simmons 1975
James Sandford Ellsworth – Portrait Painter, by Lucy B. Mitchell 1974
John Wesley Jarvis: American Painter by Harold E Dickson 1949
John Wesley Jarvis: An Account of His Life and the First Catalogue of His Work, by Theodore Bolton
John Wood Dodge in Tennessee Historical Quarterly by Raymond D White Spring 2000
Joseph-Pierre Picot de Limoelan de Clorivere in Journal of Southern Decorative Arts Winter 2002
Jouett-Bush-Frazer: Early Kentucky Artists, by William Barrow Floyd
Limners and Likenesses, by Alan Burroughs, 1965
Looking For Eulabee Dix, by Jo Ann Ridley 1997
Love and Loss: American Portrait and Mourning Miniatures by Robin Jaffee Frank 2000
Miniatures and Silhouettes of Early American Jews, by Hannah R. London 1970
National Miniature Exhibition Graphic Arts Pavillion 1933
New England Miniatures: 1750-1850, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, compiled and edited by Barbara Neville Parker 1957
New York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America 1564-1860 by George Groce and David Wallace
Painting and Portrait Making in the American Northeast, Peter Benes, Editor, by Boston Univeristy, 1994
Painting in the South: 1563-1980, Virginia Museum, Richmond
Paintings and Miniatures at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania by Nicholas B. Wainwright 1974
Paintings from Europe and the Americas in the Philadelphia Museum of Art 1994
Portraits and Miniatures by Charles Willson Peale, by Charles Coleman Sellers 1951
Portrait Miniatures from the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, by Rosalind M. Pepall 1989
Portrait Miniatures in Early American History: 1750-1840, R.W. Norton Art Gallery, 1976
Portrait Miniatures in the National Museum of American Art, by Robin Bolton-Smith 1984
Portrait Miniatures in the Royal Ontario Museum, by H. Hickl-Szabo 1981
Portrait Miniatures on Ivory 1750-1850: From the Collection of The Connecticut Historical Society, by Philip Dunbar October 1964
Portrait Miniatures – The Edward H Greene Collection Cleveland Museum of Art 1951
Portrait Painting in America, The Nineteenth Century, Ellen Miles, Editor, 1977
Portraits in Miniature, by Maymie Eschwey 1988
Portraits in the Collection of the American Antiquarian Society, by Lauren B. Hewes 2004
Portraits in the Massachusetts Historical Society, by Andrew Oliver et al 1988
Robert Field: Portrait Painter in Oils, Miniature and Water-Colours and Engraver, by Harry Piers, New York, 1927
Robert Field, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia 1978
Saint Memin – Watercolor Miniatures, by J Hall Pleasants 1947
Saint Memin and the Neoclassical Profile Portrait in America, by Ellen G Miles 1994
St. Memin in Maryland, Maryland Historical Society 1951
Salons Colonial and Republican, by Anne Hollingsworth Wharton 1900
Samuel P Howes – Portrait Painter, Whistler House Museum 1986
Shades of Our Ancestors: American Profiles and Profilists, by Alice Van Leer Carrick
Social Life in the Early Republic, by Anne Hollingsworth Wharton 1902
The Art of Henry Inman, by William H Gerdts and Carrie Rebora 1987
The Beardsley Limner and some Contemporaries, by Christine Skeeles Schloss 1973
The Life and Works of Edward Green Malbone 1777-1807, by Ruel Pardee Tolman, New York, 1958
The Miniature Portrait Collection of the Carolina Art Association by Martha R. Severns 1984
The Miniatures of David Boudon, by Nancy E. Richards in Winterthur Portfolio 9 1974
The Peale Family, Lillian B. Miller 1996
The Peter Marie Collection by Viola Hopkins Winner in NYHS Journal Spring 2006
The Spanish Golden Age in Miniature Rosenbach Museum 1988
The Starr Collection of Miniatures, by Graham Reynolds 1971
Wax Portraits and Silhouettes, by Ethel Stanwood Bolton 1914
William Birch by J L Brockway in Glass on Metal 1996
William Russell Birch by William Russell Birch in Glass on Metal 1996

British Miniature Portraits

300 Years of the English Miniature Illustrated from the Collections of the National Portrait Gallery, Richard Walker, London, 1998
A Biographical Dictionary of Wax Modellers, by E J Pyke 1973
A Dictionary of British Miniature Painters, by Daphne Foskett 1972
A Dictionary of Painters of Miniatures, by J.J. Foster, London, 1926
Andrew & Nathaniel Plimmer Miniature Painters by Geo C Williamson 1903
A Picture Book of English Miniatures, Victoria & Albert Museum 1929
Andrew Robertson, Letters and Papers of Andrew Robertson, by Emily Robertson, ed. 1879
Anecdotes of Painting in England, by Horace Walpole
Artists of the Tudor Court by Roy Strong 1983
A Thing Apart, The W R Johnston Collection by Roger and Carmela Arturi Phillips 2006
British Miniaturists, by Basil Long, 1929
British Portrait Miniatures, by Daphne Foskett 1963
British Portrait Miniatures, Edinburgh Exhibition 1965
British Portrait Miniatures, by Graham Reynolds 1997
British Profile Miniaturists, by Arthur Mayne 1970
Catalogue for the Sale of the J Pierpont Morgan Collection, Christie’s 1935
Catalogue of a Collection of Miniatures Belonging to Lord Hothfield, by Geo. C. Williamson 1916
Catalogue of Portrait Miniatures : In the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (Fitzwilliam Museum Publications), by Robert Bayne-Powell 1985
Catalogue of the Special Exhibition of Portrait Miniatures on Loan at the South Kensington Museum, June 1865
Chats on Old Miniatures, by J. J. Foster 1908
Collecting Miniatures by Daphne Foskett 1979
Collecting Old Miniatures by J H Yoxall 1916
Commoners and Me, by Gertrude Massey, 1934
Dictionary of British Art, by C. Wood
Dictionary of British Portrait Painters, by Stewart and Cutten
Elizabethan Miniatures, by Carl Winter, 1952
English Miniatures Diary V&A 1989
English Portrait Miniatures, by Graham Reynolds 1952
European Miniatures in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, by Graham Reynolds 1997
Fitzwilliam Museum Handbooks: British Portrait Miniatures, by Graham Reynolds 1998
George Engleheart 1750-1829, Miniature Painter to George III, by Geo C Williamson, 1902
Hilliard & Oliver by Mary Edmond 1983
History of Miniature Art, by Lumsden Propert, London 1887
Hanging the Head : Portraiture and Social Formation in Eighteenth-Century England, by Marcia Pointon Kings
How to Identify Portrait Miniatures, by Geo C Williamson 1909
India and British Portraiture, 1770-1825, by Mildred Archer, 1979
John Comerford and The Portrait Miniature in Ireland, Paul Caffrey
John Smart, the Man and his Miniatures, by Daphne Foskett, 1964
Life and Works of Ozias Humphry, R.A. by George C. Williamson, London 1918
Masterpieces in Little : Portrait Miniatures from the Collection of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, by Christopher Lloyd and Vanessa Remington 1997
Masterpieces of Miniature Painting, by Ernest Lemberger and Franz Hanfstaengl
Miniature Painters British and Foreign With Some Account of Those Who Practiced in America in the Eighteenth Century, by J.J. Foster 1903
Miniatures by Cyril Davenport 1908
Miniatures - a Selection from the Ashmolean Museum by Richard Walker 1997
Miniatures Address Book V&A 1990
Miniatures and Silhouettes, by Max von Bohen 1928
Miniatures at Kenwood: The Draper Gift, by Julius Bryant 1997
Miniatures Diary 1991 V&A
Miniatures Dictionary and Guide, by Daphne Foskett 1987
Miniatures in the XVIII & XIX Centuries, by Donough O’Brien 1951
Miniatures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen : The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (Catalogue of Miniatures in the Collection of H M The Queen) by Richard Walker 1992
Nicholas Hilliard by Roy Strong 1975
Painting Miniatures by Elizabeth Davys Wood 1989
Portrait Miniatures by Geo C Williamson 1897
Portrait Miniatures in The Studio by Geo C Williamson 1910
Portrait Miniatures Victoria & Albert Museum 1959
Portrait Miniatures by Stephen Butler 1994
Portrait Miniatures from the Clarke Collection, by Stephen Lloyd 2001
Portrait Miniatures from the Collection of the Duke of Buccleuch by Stephen Lloyd 1996
Portrait Miniatures from the Daphne Foskett Collection, by Stephen Lloyd 2003
Portrait Miniatures from the Dumas Egerton Collection by Stephen Lloyd 2002
Portrait Miniatures from the Merchiston Collection, by Stephen Lloyd 2005
Portrait Miniatures from the National Gallery of Scotland, by Stephen Lloyd 2004
Portrait Miniatures in Enamel: The Gilbert Collection, by Sarah Coffin and Bodo Hofstetter 2000
Portrait Miniatures in National Trust Houses - Vol 1 by Richard Walker & Alastair Laing 2003
Portrait Miniatures in National Trust Houses - Vol 2 by Richard Walker & Alastair Laing 2005
Richard and Maria Cosway, Regency Artists of Taste and Fashion, by Stephen Lloyd et al, 1995
Royal Portraits Diary 1991 V&A
Samuel Cooper (1608-1672) by Daphne Foskett 1974
Secret Passion to Noble Fashion: The World of the Portrait Miniature, by Ann Summer and Richard Walker 1999
Sir William Newton by Linda Goforth Zillman 1986
The Art of Limning by Nicholas Hilliard 1992
The Art of the Miniature Painter by Geo C Williamson 1926
The Art of Miniature Painting by C W Day undated
The British Miniature by Raymond Lister 1951
The English Miniature by John Murdoch, Jim Murrell, Patrick J. Noon & Roy Strong 1981
The English Renaissance Miniature by Roy Strong 1983
The Guide to Miniature Painting and Colouring Photographs by J S Templeton undated
The Miniature Collector: A Guide to Collectors of Old Portrait Miniatures, by Geo C Williamson, 1921
The Portrait Miniature in England by Katherine Coombs 1998
The Princess Charlotte of Wales, by Mrs Herbert Jones 1885
The Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Miniatures: In the Collection of Her Majesty the Queen (Royal Collection) by Graham Reynolds 1999
The Techniques of Painting Miniatures by Sue Burton 1995
The Wallace Collection: Catalogue of Miniatures by Graham Reynolds 1980
The Way Howe to Lymme by Jim Murrell 1983
Treasures to Hold: Irish and English Miniatures 1650-1850 from the National Gallery of Ireland by Paul Caffrey, Jane Macavock, and Adrian Le Harivel 2000
Two Centuries of Silhouettes by Peggy Hickman 1971
Wallace Collection Catalogue by W P Gibson 1935

European Miniature Portraits

100 Ans des Miniatures Suisse edited by Jeane-Claude Genoud, 1991
Aspects of Miniature Painting by Torben Holck Colding 1953
Capolavori in Smalto e Avorio Various 2004
Chefs-D'oeuvre de la Miniature et de la Gouache Musee Geneve 1956
Cornelius Hoyer by Torben Holck Colding 1961
Die Miniaturen der Albertina in Wien by Nora Keil 1977
Giambattista Gigola 1767-1841 by Bernado Falconi et al 2001
Historie de la Miniature Feminine Francaise by Camille Mauclair 1925
International Dictionary of Miniature Painters, by Harry Blattel 1992
Inventaire des Miniatures Sur Ivoire: Musee du Louvre, Musee D'Orsay by Pierrette Jean-Richard 1994
La Miniature sur Ivoire, Essai Historique et Traite Pratique by Mme. G. Debillemot-Chardon, 1910
Les Miniatures, Musee Cognaqu-Jay, Paris by Nathalie Lemoine-Bouchard 2002
Les Peintres en Miniature Actifs en France 1650-1850 by Nathalie Lemoine-Bouchard 2008
Miniaturen aus der Sammlung Tansey by Dietrun Otten and Bernd Pappe 2000
Miniaturen der Revolutionszeit 1789-1799 Aus Sammlung Tansey by Bernd Pappe et al 2005
Miniaturen des 19 Jahrhunderts aus der Sammlung Tansey by Bernd Pappe et al 2002
Miniaturen des Rokoko, Empire und Biedermeier by Heinz E R Martin 1981
Miniaturen-Dosen, Battenberg Antiquitäten Kataloge by Jörg Nimmergut 1982
Miniaturen und Silhouetten by Max von Boehn 1917
Miniatures in the State Pushkin Museum St Petersburg by Eugenia Ivanova 1996
Nationalmuseum Stockholm, Illustrated Catalogue, 2 Volumes by Magnus Olausson, 2001
Pierre Adolphe Hall 1739-1793 by Regine de Plinval de Guillebon
Portraitminiatures des Hauses Habsburg by Robert Keil 1999
Portrait Miniatures from the Collection of the Russian Museum by K V Mikhailova and G V Smirnov 1974
Portrait Miniatures in the Collection of the State Pushkin Museum Moscow by Lydia Karnaukhova 1997
Portrait Miniature in Russia XVIII-early XX Century from the Hermiage Collection by G N Komelova and G A Printseva 1986
Portrait Miniature in Russia XVIII-XIX Centuries Historical Museum Moscowby T A Selinova 1988
Portraits des Maisons Royales et Imperiales de France et d'Europe by Nicole Garnier-Pelle, Nathalie Lemoine-Bouchard, and Bernd Pappe
The Miniature in Europe in The 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th Centuries by Leo R. Schidlof 1964
The Portrait Miniatures in the Collections of the House of Orange-Nassau by Karen Schaffers-Bodenhausen 1993

Online Articles

From Hand to Heart: The Art of the American Miniature Portrait by Peter J. Baldaia
Object Lessons: Miniature Worlds by Catherine Kelly
Self-Fashioning in Sarah Goodridge’s Self-Portraits by Chris Packard
The Legacy of Nathaniel Rogers (1787-1844), by Natalie A. Naylor
John Wood Dodge and the Portrait Miniature, The Magazine Antiques, November 2003, by Raymond White
The Art of John Henry Brown, The Magazine Antiques, November 2004, by Anne Verplanck
Portraits in Miniature: Anna Claypoole Peale and Caroline Schetky, The Magazine Antiques, February 2002, by Anne Sue Hirshorn
Moses B. Russell: Yankee Miniaturist, The Magazine Antiques, November 2002 , by Randall L. Holton, Charles A. Gilday
The Portrait Miniatures of Eulabee Dix: Watercolor Painter, The Magazine Antiques, November 1994, by Anne Sue Hirshorn
John O'Brien Inman: American Artist, The Magazine Antiques, November 1998, by Carolyn B. Wilkinson
Mrs. Moses B. Russell, Boston Miniaturist: Bibliography, The Magazine Antiques, December 1999, by Randall L. Holton, Charles A. Gilday
An Art in Living: Lucy May Stanton, by Betty Alice Fowler
Dismissed Yet Disarming: The Portrait Miniature Revival, 1890-1930, Maryann Sudnick Gunderson, November 2003

Other Reference Books

Fashions in Hair by Richard Corson 1995